英语中有一些名词是抽象的，没什么具体意思，比如factor, area, situation, degree, consideration, case等。这些词常会让句子显得冗长，枯燥。去掉的话也不影响句子意思，还显得简洁很多。
原句: Strong reading skills are an important factor in students’ success in college.
修改后: Strong reading skills are important for students’ success in college.
原句: “He is an expert in the area of sociolinguistics.”
修改后: “He is an expert in sociolinguistics”
2. 减少使用程度副词，如very, just
程度副词用来强调所说事物或动作的程度, 最常见的就是very. 这一类的词还有usually, really, basically, just, clearly等。这些词被用得太多了，因为没有什么实质内容, 比较抽象，读者一般都略过去。应该尽量少用这类副词。
Mark Twain的一个著名的写作窍门就是 “Substitute ‘damn’ every time you’re inclined to write ‘very’; your editor will delete it and the writing will be just as it should be.”
Her brother was very convinced that she would not survive.
Clearly, he could not defend his position.
原句: He was very afraid when he saw the police.
修改后: He was terrified when he saw the police.
原句: Children ran very fast to scoop up candies.
修改后: Children scurried to scoop up candies.
3. 减少使用“There is” “There are”
“There is” “there are” 是英语常用句式，但如果经常使用会让文章显得枯燥乏味。这是一种相对无力，缺少活力的句式，暗示着一种被动的语气。有的可以被改写成更生动的句子。比如：
原句: There are stink bugs in every room of my house.
修改后: Stink bugs have descended upon every room of my house.
原句: There are some students who seem to have a natural gift in writing.
修改后: Some students seem to be naturally gifted writers.
我们写作时常会有意无意地写了没有必要地重复性的词，比如“free gift”, 礼物不就该是免费的吗？不然还叫礼物。这些多余的字应该从文章中删去。
原句: Every single person should love reading.
修改后: Every person should love reading.
原句: This new innovation will blow your mind.
修改后: This innovation will blow your mind.
类似的还有terrible tragedy, future plan, past memory, 等等。
首先要恰当使用关联词(transitional words)将句子或段落衔接起来，使句子清楚明白，段落间自然过度。常用的关联词有累加的（如in addition, furthermore）, 类比（如similarly, likewise）， 转折（如but, on the contrary）, 总结（如in conclusion, in short）, 等。
原句: We arrived at the airport. We saw that our plane would be late. Robin took advantage of the delay to go to the newsstand. She looked for a paperback to read on the plane. I went directly to the gate. I realized I should have told Robin to buy me gum. Robin got to the gate. She told me she’d thought of it. She handed me a pack of gum. It was my favorite.
修改后: When we arrived at the airport, we saw that our plane would be late. Robin decided to take advantage of the delay to go to the newsstand and look for a good paperback to read on the plane, but I decided to go directly to the gate. It was then that I realized that I should have told Robin to buy me some gum. Fortunately, when Robin got to the gate, she told me that she’d thought of it herself. She handed me a pack of my favorite gum.
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